English General History Politics

The Influence of Neoclassical Architecture In the Modern World

Architectural Column Orders (Sarah Woodward, 27 October 2012)

Neoclassical architecture style has had a significant influence on the design of many government buildings in the United States. This style, which was popular in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, is characterized by its use of classical elements and symmetry, and its emphasis on simplicity and order.

One of the most well-known examples of neoclassical architecture in the United States is the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. Designed by architect William Thornton and completed in 1800, the Capitol features a large central dome and two wings, each with a portico supported by classical columns. The building’s design reflects the principles of neoclassical architecture, with its emphasis on order, balance, and symmetry.

Another prominent example of neoclassical architecture in the United States is the White House, which was designed by architect James Hoban and completed in 1800. The White House features a central portico with six Ionic columns, as well as two smaller porticos on either side with four Ionic columns each. The building’s design is a nod to the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome, with its emphasis on symmetry and proportion.

Neoclassical architecture also had a significant influence on the design of other government buildings in the United States, including the Supreme Court Building, the National Archives Building, and the U.S. Treasury Building, among others. These buildings feature classical elements such as columns, pediments, and domes, as well as other neoclassical features such as symmetry and balance.

Overall, neoclassical architecture has played an important role in shaping the visual identity of the United States government, reflecting the country’s early ties to the classical traditions of Europe and the desire to create a sense of order, stability, and permanence in the design of its buildings.

Capitals (Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.)

The capitals used in architecture are an important part of the design, and they vary greatly across different cultures and time periods. Here are some of the key differences between the capitals used in Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Islamic, and Persian architecture:

  1. Egyptian capitals: In ancient Egyptian architecture, the capital used on columns is typically in the shape of a lotus flower, with petals that curve outward and upward. This style is known as the “lotus capital.” There is also a style known as the “papyrus capital,” which features a bundle of papyrus reeds.
  2. Greek capitals: In Greek architecture, there are three main types of capitals: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The Doric capital is the simplest, with a plain, round capital that sits directly on top of the column shaft. The Ionic capital features two scrolls that resemble the horns of a ram. The Corinthian capital is the most ornate, with intricately carved acanthus leaves that fan out from the column top.
  3. Persian capitals: Persian architecture is known for its intricate tilework and decorative motifs. The Persian capital is typically decorated with stylized floral patterns, sometimes incorporating calligraphy or other Islamic decorative elements.
  4. Roman capitals: Roman architecture was heavily influenced by Greek architecture, and the Roman capitals are similar to the Greek capitals. However, Roman capitals tend to be more decorative and ornate. The Composite capital is a notable Roman innovation, which combines elements of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals.
  5. Islamic capitals: In Islamic architecture, the capital used on columns is typically decorated with geometric patterns, calligraphy, or floral motifs. The muqarnas capital is a particularly distinctive Islamic style, featuring a complex, tiered design that resembles stalactites.
  6. Romanesque capitals: Romanesque architecture developed in the 11th and 12th centuries and is characterized by thick, heavy walls and rounded arches. The capitals used in Romanesque architecture are often simple in design, with geometric shapes or stylized foliage carved into the stone. They are typically squat and low-profile, with a blocky, sturdy appearance that reflects the strength and durability of the Romanesque style.
  7. Early English Gothic capitals: Early English Gothic architecture developed in the 12th and 13th centuries and is characterized by pointed arches and ribbed vaulting. The capitals used in Early English Gothic architecture are more ornate than those used in Romanesque architecture, often featuring highly detailed foliage and other naturalistic forms. They are typically taller and more slender than Romanesque capitals, with a more delicate appearance that reflects the ethereal quality of Early English Gothic architecture.

Overall, the capitals used in architecture are an important part of the design, and they vary greatly across different cultures and time periods. Each style of capital reflects the aesthetic and cultural values of the society that produced it.

Column (Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.)

The Greek classical orders of architecture are a set of design principles that were developed by ancient Greek architects and have influenced building design for centuries. These orders include the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, each with its own unique style and meaning.

  1. Doric Order

The Doric order is the oldest of the three orders and is characterized by its simplicity and strength. The columns have no base, and the capital is plain, with a circular shape and a square abacus on top. The Doric order was used in temples and other public buildings, and it was meant to convey a sense of stability and solidity.

The Doric order is said to have originated in mainland Greece, where simplicity and rationality were highly valued. The order’s austere design reflects these values, and its use in important buildings such as the Parthenon in Athens shows the importance of strength and stability in Greek culture.

  1. Ionic Order

The Ionic order is characterized by its graceful and flowing design. The columns have a base, and the capital is decorated with volutes, which are scroll-like shapes on either side. The Ionic order was often used in buildings such as libraries and marketplaces, and it was meant to convey a sense of elegance and sophistication.

The Ionic order is said to have originated in Ionia, a region of ancient Greece, where art and beauty were highly valued. The order’s flowing design reflects these values, and its use in important buildings such as the Erechtheion in Athens shows the importance of beauty and harmony in Greek culture.

  1. Corinthian Order

The Corinthian order is the most ornate of the three orders, with a highly decorated capital featuring acanthus leaves and small scrolls. The columns have a base, and the base and capital are often highly decorated with small animal figures or other motifs. The Corinthian order was often used in the most important buildings, such as the Parthenon in Athens, and it was meant to convey a sense of luxury and opulence.

The Corinthian order is said to have originated in Corinth, a city in ancient Greece, where art, culture, and refinement were highly valued. The order’s ornate design reflects these values, and its use in important buildings shows the importance of art, culture, and refinement in Greek culture.

In conclusion, the Greek classical orders of architecture are a set of design principles that reflect the values and priorities of ancient Greek society. The Doric order reflects the importance of strength and stability, the Ionic order reflects the importance of beauty and harmony, and the Corinthian order reflects the importance of art, culture, and refinement. These orders have left a lasting legacy in the world of architecture and continue to inspire designers and artists to this day.

The Parthenon in Athens
(Steve Swayne, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons)

The Parthenon

The Parthenon is an ancient temple located in Athens, Greece, built in the Doric order with a rectangular floor plan and columns supporting a frieze with mythological scenes. It features pediments at either end and is constructed using limestone with a marble roof. The building is renowned for its optical illusions and is considered a symbol of Greek architecture and classical beauty. Despite damage and modifications over the centuries, the Parthenon remains an enduring example of Greek classical architecture.

USCapitol – U.S. Supreme Court Building
USCapitol, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Supreme Court

The Supreme Court building in Washington DC is another essential building that draws heavily on the Greek classical orders of architecture. The building features a grand staircase that is flanked by 16 Corinthian columns, which symbolize the importance of art, culture, and refinement in American society. The exterior of the building is also decorated with Ionic columns, which reflect the essence of beauty and harmony in American culture.

White House
(Zach Rudisin, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons)

The White House

The White House is another important building in the United States that draws heavily on the Greek classical orders of architecture. The building was designed in the neoclassical style, which was popular in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and drew heavily on the Greek and Roman architectural styles.

The White House features a grand portico on its north facade that is supported by eight Ionic columns. The use of Ionic columns in the White House reflects the importance of beauty and harmony in American culture and is meant to convey a sense of elegance and refinement.

In addition to the Ionic columns, the White House also features other classical elements, such as a pediment on the north facade, which is decorated with a sculpture of the American eagle. The use of the pediment is a common feature in classical architecture and reflects the importance of symbolism in American culture.

U.S. Capitol Building
(Martin Falbisoner, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons)

The US Capitol Building

The US Capitol Hill in Washington DC is one of the most important buildings in the United States government. The building was designed in the neoclassical style, which drew heavily on the Greek classical orders of architecture. The building features a central dome that is supported by 36 Doric columns, which symbolize the strength and stability of the United States government. The exterior of the building is decorated with Ionic and Corinthian columns, which reflect the importance of beauty, harmony, and refinement in American culture.

The U.S. Treasury Building

The U.S. Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. is an example of neoclassical architecture that incorporates elements of the Greek classical orders of architecture. The building’s design features a colonnade with columns modeled after the Doric order, which is characterized by its simple and sturdy design. The use of classical elements in the design of government buildings during the 19th century was meant to convey a sense of order, stability, and permanence. The U.S. Treasury Building remains an important symbol of the neoclassical architectural tradition in the United States and a testament to the enduring influence of the classical orders of architecture on modern design.

New York Stock Exchange Building
(Jean-Christophe BENOIST, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons)

New York Stock Exchange Building

The New York Stock Exchange building in New York City is an iconic building that reflects the importance of commerce and trade in American society. The building was designed in the neoclassical style, which draws heavily on the Greek classical orders of architecture. The building features a grand facade that is supported by six Ionic columns, which symbolize the importance of beauty and harmony in commerce and trade. The interior of the building is also decorated with Doric columns, which symbolize the strength and stability of the American economy.

Disclaimer: This article is entirely written by ChatGPT Feb 13 Version, thus might contain inaccurate information.

Further Reading

Neoclassical | Architect of the Capitol (

U.S. Capitol Building | Architect of the Capitol (

Supreme Court Building | Architect of the Capitol (


Book Excerpts English

Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina

“All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

― Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina


Daily Post English Philosophy

Leo Tolstoy

“Only to change the world
Everyone is thinking
To change yourself first
No one thinks.”

Leo Tolstoy


Book Excerpts Books by Taung Galay Sayadaw English Linguistics

East Pwo Karen Basic Sentences and Word Order

As explained in the book, Culture, Customs and Literature of the Eastern Pwo Karen People in Myanmar, by Ashin Pin Nya Tha Mi (2022), the basic word order for Eastern Pwo Karen is Subject-Verb-Object, whereas the basic word order for Burmese is Subject-Object-Verb. We can see the examples shown below.

‘Uncle eats rice.’

Subject (ကတ္တား)Verb (ကြိယာ)Object (ကံ)
(Pin Nya Tha Mi, 2022, p. 98)

‘ဘကြီးသည် ထမင်းကို စားသည်။’

(Pin Nya Tha Mi, 2022, p. 98)

According to the research from Kato (2019), Karenic languages follow the word order of Subject-Verb-Object, unlike the languages of the Tibeto-Burman language family, most of which are Subject-Object-Verb type.

Kato (2019) also cited that the change of Karenic languages from Object-Verb to Verb-Object could have been the result of contact with Mon in the late first millennium AD (700-999 AD).

Examples are shown below.

‘Thawa struck Thakhlein.’

Subject (ကတ္တား)Verb (ကြိယာ)Object (ကံ)
(Kato, 2019, Example 54)

“သာအွာသည် သာခလိင်းကို ရိုက်သည်။”

(Kato, 2019, Example 54) in Burmese translation

In the case of a ditransitive verb, the two objects are arranged in the order of Recipient – Theme.

(Kato, 2019, p. 142)

‘Thawa gave Thakhlein a jackfruit.’

SubjectVerbIndirect ObjectDirect Object
(Kato, 2019, Example 55)

“သာအွာသည် သာခလိုင်းကို ပိန္နဲသီးတစ်လုံး ပေးသည်။”

ကတ္တားကြိယာကံ (Indirect)ကံ (Direct)
SubjectVerbIndirect ObjectDirect Object
(Kato, 2019, Example 55) in Burmese translation


Kato, A. (2019, June 3). Pwo Karen. The Mainland Southeast Asia Linguistic Area, 131–175.

Pin Nya Tha Mi. (2022). Culture, Customs and Literature of the Eastern Pwo Karen People in Myanmar (1st Edition). Sarpay Beikman.


Buddhism English

Bīja (Buddhism)

Explanation in English

(The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism) [1]

Bīja (T. sa bon ས་བོན་; C. zhongzi), literally “seed”, is used in two contexts:

1) “karmic seeds” that ripen upon meeting with appropriate causes and condition;

2) “seed syllables” used as a focus for visualization in tantric practices.

(SuttaCentral — Dictionary)[2]


  1. seed; germ; generating element

Nature and the Environment in Early Buddhism by S. Dhammikabīja

Seed. A seed is a new plant in the form of an embryo. Some of the parts of seeds mentioned in the Tipiṭaka include the husk (thusa), the kernel (miñja), and in the case of germinating seeds, the sprout or shoot (aṅkura). The seeds of certain plants are encased in a pod (sipāṭaka or kuṭṭhilika). In order to germinate a seed has to have an intact casing, be fresh, be unspoiled by wind or heat and be sown in a good field with properly prepared soil AN.i.135. Some seeds have hard shells that crack only if burned and it was noticed that new shoots often appear quickly after a forest fire SN.i.69. The two factors that enable a seed to grow are nutrition from the soil (paṭhavi rasa) and moisture SN.i.134. Whether the leaves or fruit of the plant is sweet or bitter was believed to depend not on the nutrition but on the nature of the seed AN.i.32. Commenting on the endless cycle of agriculture the monk Kāḷudāyin said: “Again and again they sow the seed; again and again the god king rains; again and again farmers plough the fields; again and yet again the country has grain” Thag.532. The seven types of edible seeds usually mentioned in the Tipiṭaka are sālivīhimuggamāsatila and taṇḍula MN.i.457. Elsewhere, the first two of these are included in a list of edible grains Vin.iv.264. See Dhañña.

(Wikipedia) [3]

In Hinduism and Buddhism, the Sanskrit term Bīja (बीज) (Jp. 種子 shuji) (Chinese 种子 zhǒng zǐ), literally seed, is used as a metaphor for the origin or cause of things and cognate with bindu.

Explanation in Burmese [4][5]

၁ – မူလဗီဇ=အမြစ်မျိုး။
၂ – ခန္ဓဗီဇ=အပင်မျိုး။
၃ – ဖလုဗီဇ=အဆစ်မျိုး။
၄ – အဂ္ဂဗီဇ=အညွန့်မျိုး။
၅ – ဗီဇ ဗီဇ=အ‌စေ့မျိုး။


Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary [6]


Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိမြန်မာ အဘိဓာန် [6]

မျိုးစေ့ဦး (အလှူ)။

[Volunteer needed for Eastern Pwo Karen translation for this post]

[ဤအကြောင်းအရာအား အရှေ့ပိုးကရင်ဘာသာစကားသို့ ပြန်ဆိုရန် စေတနာ့ဝန်ထမ်းအလိုရှိသည်။]

Directly extracted from the following sources:

  1.  Robert E. Buswell Jr.Donald S. Lopez Jr.The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (Princeton: 2014), s.v. Bīja
  2. Definitions for: bīja (
  3. Bīja – Wikipedia
  4. ဗီဇငါးမျိုး – ဓမ္မဗောဓိ (
  5. ဗီဇ (၅) မျိုး ~ သရုပ်ပြ မာတိကာကျမ်း (
  6. bījagga – Definition and Meaning – Pāli Dictionary (


Buddhism English

Four Forms of Birth (Buddhism)

Explanation in English [1][2]

Four forms of birth

In traditional Buddhist thought, there are four forms of birth:

  1. birth from an egg (Sanskrit: Andaja; Pali: Aṇḍaja; Chinese: 卵生; Standard Tibetan: Sgongskyes)—like a bird, fish, or reptile;
  2. birth from a womb (Sanskrit: Jarayuja; Pali: Jalābuja; Chinese: 胎生; Standard Tibetan: Mnal-skyes)—like most mammals and some worldly devas;
  3. birth from moisture (Sanskrit: Samsvedaja; Pali: Saṃsedaja; Chinese: 濕生; Standard Tibetan: Drod-skyes)—probably referring to the appearance of animals whose eggs are microscopic, like maggots appearing in rotting flesh;
  4. birth by transformation (Sanskrit: Upapaduka; Pali: Opapatika; Chinese: 化生; Standard Tibetan: Rdzus-skyes)—miraculous materialization, as with this devas.

Explanation in Chinese [3]


154. 金剛經與其它經典常提到『四生』,不知四生是何意義?




二、胎生(梵語jarayuja-yoni, 巴利語jalabu-ja),又作腹生。從母胎而出生者,稱為胎生,如人、象、馬、牛、豬、羊、驢等。



Explanation in Burmese [4]


ဘဝတခုတွင် အစစွာ ဖြစ်ခြင်းလေးမျိုးသန္ဓေဆိုသည်မှာ ဘဝတခုတွင် အစစွာဖြစ်ခြင်းကိုဆိုသည်။ သန္ဓေသည် သံသေဒဇ၊ ဩပပါတိက၊ အဏ္ဍဇ၊ ဂဗ္ဘသေယျက ဟူ၍လေးမျိုးဖြစ်သည်။ လူတို့သည် အမိပမ်းတွင်း၌ ကိန်းအောင်း နေရသောကြောင့် ဂဗ္ဘသေယျကအကြောင်း အထူး လေ့လာသင့်ပေသည်။ သန္ဓေလေးမျိုးကိုရေးသားရာ၌ ဇလာဗုဇအစားအခေါ်များအသိများသော ဂဗ္ဘသေယျကကိုသုံးစွဲမည်။

သန္ဓေဆိုသည်မှာ တစ်ဘဝနှင့် တစ်ဘဝ ဆက်စပ်ခြင်း၊တစ်နည်း ဘဝတစ်ခုတွင်အစစွာ ဖြစ်ခြင်းကိုဆိုသည်။ တရားကိုယ်မှာသက်ရှိသတ္တဝါ၏ နာမ်တရားနှင့်ရုပ်တရားပင်တည်း။ ယင်းသန္ဓေကို ပဋိသန္ဓေ ဟူ၍ပါဠိဘာသာ၌ ခေါ်ဝေါ်သုံးစွဲကြသေးသည်။ ထိုသန္ဓေသည် (၁)သံသေဒဇ၊ (၂) ဩပပါတိက၊ (၃) အဏ္ဍဇ၊ (၄) ဇလာဗုဇဟူ၍ လေးမျိုးဖြစ်သည်။ ဇလာဗုဇကိုအမိဝမ်းတွင်း၌ ကိန်းအောင်းနေရသောကြောင့် ဂဗ္ဘသေယျကဟုလည်းခေါ်ဆိုသည်။

၁။ အဏ္ဍဇဆိုသည်မှာ ဥ၌ ဖြစ်သောပဋိသန္ဓေကိုဆိုသည်။ (Oviparity)

၂။ ဂဗ္ဘသေယျကဆိုသည်မှာ အမိဝမ်း၌ကိန်းအောင်း၍တည်ရသောပဋိသန္ဓေကိုဆိုသည်။ (Viviparity)

၃။ သံသေဒဇဆိုသည်မှာ – သစ်ပင်၊ ပန်းပင်၊ နွယ်ပင်၊ မစင်၊ ကျင်ကြီး၊ ကျင်ငယ်၊ ရေပုပ်၊ ရေသိုးစသော အညစ်အကြေး၌ဖြစ်သော ပဋိသန္ဓေကိုဆိုသည်။ (Wet Birth)

၄။ ဩပပါတိက ဆိုသည်မှာ ဘုံ၊ ဗိမာန်၊ ဥယျာဉ်၊ ရေကန်စသောဌာနတို့၌ဖြစ်သော ပဋိသန္ဓေကိုဆိုသည်။ (Metamorphosis (Biological)/ Metaplasia)

[Volunteer needed for Eastern Pwo Karen translation for this post]

[ဤအကြောင်းအရာအား အရှေ့ပိုးကရင်ဘာသာစကားသို့ ပြန်ဆိုရန် စေတနာ့ဝန်ထမ်းအလိုရှိသည်။]

Directly extracted from the following references:

  1. Jāti (Buddhism) – Wikipedia
  2. Karma and Rebirth in Buddhism (
  3. 佛學問答第三輯 (
  4. သန္ဓေလေးမျိုး – ဝီကီပီးဒီးယား (


English History Politics

Reverend Hugh Knox, the mentor of Alexander Hamilton

A Biography of Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804)
Mentors (1768-1773)

Oddly, after his family situation had disintegrated, Alexander’s life seemed to improve immensely. His experience as bookkeeper in his mother’s store landed him a job as a clerk with the international trading firm of Nicholas Cruger, a New Yorker whose business hub was on St. Croix.

The boy’s exceptional skills and endless learning capacity soon saw him running the firm upon the owner’s absence. As a teenager, Hamilton was inspecting cargoes, advising ships’ captains, and preparing bills of lading. Under Cruger’s tutelage, Hamilton mastered the intricacies of global finance and experienced first hand how the material interests of peoples and countries interwove in the complicated fabric of international trade. The bustling port of St. Croix, which was a melting pot of residents and visitors from all over the world, early formed a picture of a global village in Hamilton’s mind. He also saw the darker side of international dealings, as the island was a center for the slave trade. Hamilton came away with a deep hatred of slavery, and he eventually co-founded an abolitionist society in New York. In the meantime, the youngster drank in everything he saw. Nothing Hamilton experienced ever went unused.

Whereas Nicholas Cruger exposed Alexander Hamilton to material realities, the Reverend Hugh Knox provided him with a strong spiritual and intellectual grounding. Knox–who took Hamilton under his wing shortly after Rachel’s death–was a Scottish Presbyterian minister at odds with the mainstream of his faith because of his firm belief in free will over the Calvinist doctrine of Predestination. For someone like Hamilton who was otherwise predestined to a life of obscurity, we can see how Knox’s philosophy would have appealed to him. The Reverend’s encouragement and influence undoubtedly led Hamilton to dream big dreams. Knox, a brilliant sermon-writer and occasional doctor, took the young orphan under his wing and tutored him in the humanities and sciences. When he was able to get away from the office, Hamilton further expanded his intellect in Knox’s library, where he read voluminously in the classics, literature, and history. Hamilton, who had early fancied himself a writer, published an occasional poem in the local paper, and impressed the residents of the island with a particularly vivid and florid account of a hurricane in 1772.

By 1773, his mentors had raised enough money to send him to America to continue his education. It was clear to all who encountered the young man that he was much too brilliant and determined to remain in what Hamilton himself termed “the grovelling condition of a clerk.” Cruger, Knox, and other wealthy islanders, sent Hamilton off in June of 1773 to New York to study medicine, most likely in the hope that he would return to the island and set up his practice there. But Alexander Hamilton was never to see the West Indies again.

Original source: Mentors (1768-1773) < A Biography of Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) < Biographies < American History From Revolution To Reconstruction and beyond (

Featured image: John Trumbull, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons


English History Religion

Qiu Chuji, Guru of Genghis Khan

Qiu Chuji (丘處機) (Born 1148 in Chi-hsia, China — Died July, 1227 in Beijing, china), widely known by his Taoist name Chang Chun Zi (長春子), was a Taoist master who provided spiritual guidance to Genghis Khan and was appointed by him as the head of religious affairs in China. His journey from northern China to Afghanistan to meet Genghis Khan was recorded by his disciple Li Chih-Ch’ang and contains some of his dialogues with Genghis Khan. Besides his involvement with Genghis Khan, and politics, Qiu Chuji was one of the most major Taoist spiritual leaders in history. Qiu Chuji was a disciple of Wang Chongyang, the founder of the Quanzhen (Complete Reality) school. Qiu Chuji is at the origin of his own branch of Quanzhen Taoism called Dragon Gate.

Journey to Genghis Khan

Around 1219, Genghis Khan summoned Qui Chuji to come visit him. Genghis Khan was principally interested in extending his life, since he had heard talk of Qui Chuji’s abilities in this regard. Qui Chuji was located in Lai-chou in northern China when he received the summons. He tried to arrange for Genghis to visit him when he returned from his campaign in the West (Central Asia and Afghanistan), but to no avail. Qui Chuji received a letter from Genghis that highly praised him and Taoism, and implored him to come to Central Asia.

In 1221, Qiu Chuji set out on his journey. He first responded to a request to visit Genghis’s brother Temuge, who was interested in extending his life. Qui Chuji told him that these matters could only be explained to someone who fasted and observed certain rules. Then Temuge sent him on his way, with a request for him to return after he had seen Genghis.

During the journey, Qiu Chuji was treated well but not always given what he wanted; for example he was not allowed to stop and rest for the winter. When Genghis’s son Chaghatai invited Qiu Chuji to stay with him to the south of the Amu Darya, Qiu Chuji refused because he thought his vegetarian diet was not viable in that area. Qiu Chuji received a letter from Genghis, who was on his way back to the East and eager to meet the master.

Genghis met qui Chuji near the Amu Darya. According Arthur Waley’s translation of the Travels of an Alchemist, Genghis said, “Other rulers summoned you, but you would not go to them. And now you have come ten thousand li to see me. I take this as a high compliment.”

Qiu Chuji replied, “That I, a hermit of the mountains, should come at your Majesty’s bidding was the will of Heaven.”

Genghis asked, “Adept, what medicine of long life have you brought me from afar?”

Qiu Chuji replied, “I have means of protecting life, but no elixir that will prolong it.”

Genghis was curious and Qiu Chuji answered his questions, teaching him about Taoism. They had many meetings, which were attended by interpreters and two of the Mongol leaders who had brought Qui Chuji to Genghis. Genghis invited Qiu Chuji to have all his meals with Genghis, but Qiu Chuji declined because he wanted peace and quiet. Genghis was so pleased with Qiu Chuji’s teachings that he ordered for them to be written down in Chinese characters.

In a sermon that has come down to us under the name Hsüan Fēng Ch’ing Hui Lu, Qui Chuji advised Genghis to practice chastity and vegetarianism. Genghis took this advice to heart and tried to apply it to some extent. Qiu Chuji also gave him political advice: he told Genghis not temporarily avoid taxing some provinces so they could economically recover from the effects of war. He advised having a Chinese minister manage this, and pointed out that this method had worked well for the previous dynasty.

Genghis and Qui Chuji returned to Mongolia together. They continued to meet and talk throughout the journey. Qiu Chuji did what he could to save lives by feeding the destitute. He convinced Genghis to hunt and eat meat less, and Genghis stopped hunting for two whole months. As a farewell gift, Genghis exempted the master’s pupils from taxation.

After Genghis and Qiu Chuji separated, Genghis continued to write to him. He wrote (in Arthur Waley’s translation ) “I am always thinking of you and I hope you do not forget me.” He requested for Qui Chuji and his disciples to pray for his longevity, and he offered to let Qiu Chuji live wherever he wanted.

Qiu Chuji died on July 23, 1227. Genghis Khan died a month later. Qui Chuji left behind many disciples, poetry, and some of his sermons which were recorded. His Dragon Gate school benefited from Genghis Khan’s support and became the dominant branch of Taoism.


“Sweep, sweep, sweep! Sweep clear the heart till there is nothing left. He with a heart that is clean-swept is called a ‘good man.’”

“For ten thousand li I have rode on a Government horse; It is three years since I parted from my friends. The weapons of war are still not at rest, but of the Tao and its workings I have had my chance to preach.”

“Those who study Tao must learn not to desire the things that other men desire, not to live in places where other men live. They must do without pleasant sounds and sights, and get their pleasure only out of purity and quiet.”


The Travels of an Alchemist (1931), by Li Chih-Ch’ang, tr. Arthur Waley

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Originally published at on July 23, 2018.

Feature image: The “Love” Story between Genghis Khan VS Taoism Master Qiu Chuji | Witch From Far East (

Article originally published by LLE staff Taifun33 on the decentralized blockchain encyclopedia Lunyr. Free to modify and distribute under the Creative Commons 4.0 License (


Book Excerpts Buddhism English Religion

Noble Eightfold Path

The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering gives us the Noble Eightfold Path which consists of eight limbs arranged in three groups: Sīla, Samādhi, and Paññā.

• sammā-vācā (Right speech)
• sammā-kammanta (Right action)
• sammā-ajīva (Right livelihood)

• sammā-vāyāma (Right effort)
• sammā-sati (Right attentiveness)
• sammā-samādhi (Right concentration)

• sammā-ditthi (Right view)
• sammā-saṅkappa (Right thinking)

Page 21 of The Way to Ultimate Calm – Selected Discourses of Webu Sayadaw by Webu Sayadaw, Roger Bischoff (Translator)

Feature Image by Chris Falter on Wikipedia Commons


Buddhism English

Dhammapada 155

Verse 155: Not having led the Holy life, not having obtained wealth in their youth; such as these the unwise, pine away like aged herons in a life in which there are no fish. (Dhammapada)

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